Gallic Acid (also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a trihydroxybenzoic acid with the formula C6H2(OH)3CO2H. It is classified as a phenolic acid. It is found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants.It is a white solid, although samples are typically brown owing to partial oxidation. Salts and esters of gallic acid are termed "gallates".
Gallic Acid is an important component of iron gall ink.
Gallic Acid is a potential bleaching agent and anti-oxidant, it is also astringent and potentially anti-microbial and anti-fungal. Scientists are finding that gallic acid may serve as a skin-lightening agent by inhibiting the action of the tyrosinase and peroxidase enzymes. Some studies indicate that it is more effective than hydroquinone when combined with the proper ingredients. It is also incorporated into anti-aging formulations for its ability to prevent mucopolysaccaride deterioration. It is a constituent of witch hazel and oak bark, among many other plants; however, it is generally obtained from nutgalls for commercial purposes.
Antibacterial function, cure dysentery. It has the functions of convergence, hemostasis and diarrhea. Can be used as preservative. Preparation of pyrogallic acid, drugs, inks, dyes and other media explosion-proof agent. Also used as a developer and an analytical reagent for the detection of free inorganic acids, two hydroxy acetone, alkaloids, and metals.